Primary films for tapes can be produced via a blown, cast or water quenched film process. They are then continuously or discontinuously cut into strips then heated by means of hot air or a hot plate and stretched into the final tape size. With the continuous process, the stretched tapes are wound on reels, while the discontinuous process is typically used in combination with a stretching hot-plate that feeds tapes to directly to a loom system.
Raffia for twine and ropes is obtained in the same continuous way as described above, but for a larger tape size. Then it is twisted into a final rope that can be used for agricultural or packaging uses.
Strapping is normally produced from large and thick primary tapes or from thick sheet that is then trimmed into thick tapes as well. The thick tapes are then stretched on hot media, such as hot air or boiling water, then very often embossed, and finally annealed and wound on reels. In very few cases, the whole thick sheet is stretched and trimmed into final strapping size afterward, before annealing and the winding steps.
Straps are typically used for packaging and cover various materials, such as newspaper, bundling, pallet load securing, bricks transportation, etc.